Characteristics, Limitations and Generations of Computer

Characteristics, Limitations and Generations of Computer

Characteristics, Limitations and Generations of Computer

Characteristics of Computer

       Computer is playing an important role in the development of modern era. Let’s see that

What are the characteristics of a computer that make it so important? computer’s Main features are :


​​       Computer works at a very high speed. It also dulls the complex to complex calculations in a few seconds. A personal computer can perform billions of calculations in less than a second. If a computer completes a task in a minute, then it will take a human’s whole life to complete this task.


       The results obtained from the computer are always accurate. a computer After giving the right instructions, he gets all the results right. Computer never makes mistakes. Errors in computer generated results are due to human errors. It can also give wrong results due to computer malfunction or virus infection.


       Mutter does not work and tower Even while working, it continues to work with the same unity and speed.

Power of Remembering

       Computer also has memory power like human brain, in which lakhs and crores of data can be stored. These data can be revisited at any time as needed.

Wide utility (Versatility)

       Computer is used in many types of work. Computer has an important role in many fields like school, college, hospital, factory, home, office, research, meteorology, entertainment etc.


       Due to the quality of automation in the computer, by its use human Labor and time are saved.

Storage Capacity

       The storage capacity of the computer is very high. Millions of data can be stored in it.

Limitations of Computer

       Despite so many features, there are some limitations of the computer.

  • 1. Computer does not have the ability to think and understand. It is an inert machine and works only on the instructions given to it. In terms of intelligence, even a two year old child is more intelligent than a computer. At present, efforts have been made to put artificial intelligence in some high quality computers. It is possible that after some time such computers will come which can even think.
  • 2. Computer technology changes rapidly, due to which old computers remain less useful. Because of this there is a need to upgrade the computer which is costly.
  • 3. Various measures have to be taken to keep the important information stored in the computer safe. They are most at risk from computer virus.
  • 4. E-Commerce E-Banking A.T.M. In the beginning, many stories of cheating have also started coming to the fore.

Computer Generation

       Computers entered the commercial sector about 70 years ago. Earlier its use was limited to science, engineering and military. The development sequence of commercial computers has been classified into generations on the basis of new technologies used in the computer. In this evolution, the working speed of the computer, storage capacity and new application programs have increased while its size and cost have decreased. Its production has also increased. And now it is easily available.

       The development sequence of computers so far has been divided into five generations.

First Generation Computers (1942 to 1955)

       Vacuum tubes were used in computers of this generation. The vacuum tube was large in size, so the size of computers of this generation was greatly increased. Their working speed was slow. In these, letter cuts are used for input and output. Magnetic drums were used for internal memory. In these, machine language and assembly language were prevalent. Some of the major computers of this generation were ENIAC and EDVAC.

Second Generation Computers (1955 to 1964)

       Second generation computers were based on transistors, which were invented by Bell Batteries in 1947. Transistor is a solid state device which is made of semi-metal. This was the function of the transistor which was of the vacuum tube in the first generation computers. But their size is much compared to vacuum tubes. was smaller and they were more reliable and relatively faster in working. Electricity consumption was also very less in these.

       Improvements were also made in the technology of memory at this time. Primary memory based entirely on transistor technology became available in the 1960s. Use of magnetic tapes and disks for secondary memory

       Started which is still prevalent today. With the use of transistors, the size of computers became very small as well as high temperature problem has also reduced to a great extent. Due to this reason, their reliability also increased, due to small size, internal memory, good input was used, cost of computers also included A series, IBM-1600 series, CTC-3600 etc. Some major computers of this generation.

Third Generation Computers (1964 to 1975)

       In this generation of computers, transistors were replaced by Integrated Circuits. These are called I.C. IC is a small rectangular flat piece in which thousands of transistors and other electronic elements are contained. Because of their small flattened shape, they are more popularly known as chips. IC The use of computers further reduced the size, increased speed, increased memory and reduced cost. Along with this, their credibility also increased further. The important computer developed during this period was the IBM-360. LCL-1900, VAX-750 etc.

Fourth Generation Computers (1975 to 1989)

       Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits (VISI) were used in this generation of computers. These circuits contain millions of transistors and other electronic circuits in a quarter of an inch. Hence these circuits came to be called microchips. The first microchip was the Intel 4004, produced by Intel Corporation in 1970. This small chip came to be called a micro processor. A computer with a microprocessor is called a de micro computer.

       The size of computers of this generation became very small due to the use of micro processors.” As a result, till now the computers which required large rooms were now kept on the table. There has been a tremendous increase in processing capacity, memory and reliability.On the basis of size, computers of this generation are classified into microcomputers (desktop laptops, palmtops), minicomputers, mainframe computers, and supercomputers.


Fifth Generation Computers (1989 to present)

These computers are still in the development stage. In these, efforts are being made to develop intellectual abilities like reasoning, thinking, decision making etc. These computers will be able to work faster and more reliable than the current computers and also in complex and odd conditions. Programming methods will also become simpler in fifth generation computers. They will also begin to understand human language and behavior and both input and commands will become easier for D. In the coming time, the trend of mobile computers is increasing and will increase further.

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