Yoga Sutras of Patanjali : Chapter 4: Liberation (Kaivalya Pada)

Yoga Sutras of Patanjali : Chapter 4: Liberation (Kaivalya Pada)

       Patanjali divided his Yoga Sutras into four chapters or books (Sanskrit – Pada), containing in all 196 aphorisms, divided as mentioned below:

Yoga Sutras : Patanjali

Chapter 4: Liberation (Kaivalya Pada)

Means of attaining experience (4.1-4.3)

4.1       The subtler attainments come with birth or are attained through herbs, mantra, austerities or concentration.

(janma osadhi mantra tapah samadhi jah siddhyayah)

4.2       The transition or transformation into another form or type of birth takes place through the filling in of their innate nature.

(jatyantara parinamah prakriti apurat)

4.3       Incidental causes or actions do not lead to the emergence of attainments or realization, but rather, come by the removal of obstacles, much like the way a farmer removes a barrier (sluice gate), so as to naturally allow the irrigation of his field. 

(nimittam aprayojakam prakritinam varana bhedas tu tatah ksetrikavat

Emergence and mastery of mind (4.4-4.6)

4.4       The emergent mind fields springs forth from the individuality of I-ness (asmita).

(nirmana chittani asmita matrat)

4.5       While the activities of the emergent mind fields may be diverse, the one mind is the director of the many.

(pravritti bhede prayojakam chittam ekam anekesam)

4.6       Of these mind fields, the one that is born from meditation is free from any latent impressions that could produce karma.

(tatra dhyana jam anasayam)

Actions and karma (4.7-4.8)

4.7       The actions of yogis are neither white nor black, while they are threefold for others.

(karma ashukla akrisnam yoginah trividham itaresam)

4.8       Those threefold actions result in latent impressions (vasanas) that will later arise to fruition only corresponding to those impressions.

(tatah tad vipaka anugunanam eva abhivyaktih vasananam)

Subconscious impressions (4.9-4.12)

4.9       Since memory (smriti) and the deep habit patterns (samskaras) are the same in appearance, there is an unbroken continuity in the playing out of those traits, even though there might be a gap in location, time, or state of life.

(jati desha kala vyavahitanam api anantaryam smriti samskarayoh eka rupatvat)

4.10    There is no beginning to the process of these deep habit patterns (samskaras), due to the eternal nature of the will to live. 

(tasam anaditvam cha ashisah nityatvat)

4.11    Since the impressions (4.10) are held together by cause, motive, substratum, and object, they disappear when those deep impressions disappear.

(hetu phala ashraya alambana samgrihitatvat esam abhave tad abhavah) 

4.12    Past and future exist in the present reality, appearing to be different because of having different characteristics or forms.

(atita anagatam svarupatah asti adhva bhedat dharmanam)

Objects and the 3 gunas (4.13-4.14)

4.13    Whether these ever-present characteristics or forms are manifest or subtle, they are composed of the primary elements called the three gunas.

(te vyakta suksmah guna atmanah)

4.14    The characteristics of an object appear as a single unit, as they manifested uniformly from the underlying elements.

(parinama ekatvat vastu tattvam)

Mind perceiving objects (4.15-4.17)

4.15    Although the same objects may be perceived by different minds, they are perceived in different ways, because those minds manifested differently.

(vastu samye chitta bhedat tayoh vibhaktah panthah)

4.16    However, the object itself does not depend on any one mind, for if it did, then what would happen to the object if it were not being experienced by that mind?

(na cha eka chitta tantram ched vastu tat pramanakam tada kim syat)

4.17    Objects are either known or not known according to the way in which the coloring of that object falls on the coloring of the mind observing it.

(tad uparaga apeksitvat chittasya vastu jnata ajnatam)

Illumination of the mind (4.18-4.21)

4.18    The activities of the mind are always known by the pure consciousness, because that pure consciousness is superior to, support of, and master over the mind.

(sada jnatah chitta vrittayah tat prabhu purusasya aparinamitvat)

4.19    That mind is not self-illuminating, as it is the object of knowledge and perception by the pure consciousness.

(na tat svabhasam drishyatvat)

4.20    Nor can both the mind and the illuminating process be cognized simultaneously.

(eka-samaye cha ubhaye anavadharanam)

4.21    If one mind were illumined by another, as its master, then there would be an endless and absurd progression of cognitions, as well as confusion.

(chitta antara drishye buddhi-buddheh atiprasangah smriti sankarah cha)

Buddhi, discrimination, and liberation (4.22-4.26)

4.22    When the unchanging consciousness appears to take on the shape of that finest aspect of mind-field (4.18), then the experience of one’s own cognition process is possible. 

(chitteh apratisamkramayah tad akara apattau sva buddhi samvedanam)

4.23    Therefore, the mind field, which is colored by both seer and seen, has the potential to perceive any and all objects.

(drastri drisya uparaktam chittam sarva artham)

4.24    That mind field, though filled with countless impressions, exists for the benefit of another witnessing consciousness, as the mind field is operating only in combination with those impressions.

(tad asankheya vasanabhih chittam api parartham samhatya karitvat)

4.25    For one who has experienced this distinction between seer and this subtlest mind, the false identities and even the curiosity about the nature of one’s own self come to an end.

(vishesa darshinah atma bhava bhavana vinivrittih)

4.26    Then the mind is inclined towards the highest discrimination, and gravitates towards absolute liberation between seer and seen.

(tada viveka nimnam kaivalya pragbharam chittam)

Breaches in enlightenment (4.27-4.28)

4.27    When there are breaks or breaches in that high discrimination, other impressions arise from the deep unconscious.

(tachchhidresu pratyaya antarani samskarebhyah) 

4.28    The removal of those interfering thought patterns is by the same means by which the original colorings were removed.

(hanam esam kleshavat uktam)

Perpetual enlightenment (4.29-4.30)

4.29    When there is no longer any interest even in omniscience, that discrimination allows the samadhi, which brings an abundance of virtues like a rain cloud brings rain.

(prasankhyane api akusidasya sarvatha viveka khyateh dharma-meghah samadhih)

4.30    After that dharma-meghah samadhi, the colorings of the kleshas and the karmas are removed.

(tatah klesha karma nivrittih)

Knowables become few (4.31)

4.31    Then, by the removal of those veils of imperfection, there comes the experience of the infinite, and the realization that there is almost nothing to be known.

(tada sarva avarana mala apetasya jnanasya anantyat jneyam alpam)

Gunas and liberation or Kaivalya (4.32-4.34)

4.32    Also resulting from that dharma-meghah samadhi (4.29), the three primary elements or gunas (4.13-4.14) will have fulfilled their purpose, cease to transform into further transformations, and recede back into their essence.

(tatah kritarthanam parinama krama samaptih gunanam)

4.33    The sequencing process of moments and impressions corresponds to the moments of time, and is apprehended at the end point of the sequence.

(ksana pratiyogi parinama aparanta nigrahyah kramah)

4.34    When those primary elements involve, or resolve themselves back into that out of which they emerged, there comes liberation, wherein the power of pure consciousness becomes established in its true nature.

(purusha artha sunyanam gunanam pratiprasavah kaivalyam svarupa pratistha va chiti shaktih iti)

Yoga Sutras, Yoga Sutras, Yoga Sutras, Yoga Sutras, Yoga Sutras


Chapter 4 of Yoga Sutras : Liberation (Kaivalya Pada)

(Yoga Sutras of Maharshi Patanjali)

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