Computer : Introduction, Definition, Types and Uses of Computer

Computer : Introduction, Definition, Types and Uses of Computer


Introduction of Computer

       The invention of the computer is a great achievement of the 20th century. Today computer does not need any introduction. Today computers are used in every field of life. The use of computers has become indispensable in all fields of scientific research, trade, industry, environment, meteorology, space mission, communication, traffic, medical education, entertainment, etc. The impact of the Internet, a communication system made of interconnected computers around the world, has been so tremendous that it has ushered in a new era, the information technology era. In today’s era of information technology, it is impossible to imagine life without computers.

       Computer has contributed in all the fields of development of humanity. Computers have solved many complex problems and made many impossible tasks possible. For a developing country like India, computer is very necessary because computer helps in improving the economic condition of the nation can play an important role.

Definition of Computer

       The origin of the word computer is from the English word Compate. Which means – to count or count. In fact, the purpose of the right to computer was to build a machine that could calculate quickly, but today 80 percent of the work done by the computer is done. More functions Mathematical or natural Computer is defined as just a calculating device, so 80 percent of the work is done by it. The computer has tremendous amount of computing power and memory and can process instructions in the blink of an eye.

       The preferred definition of computer is as follows :

  • Computer is an automatic electronic machine, in which we can convert raw data into meaningful information by controlling the program.
  • Raw data is the inputs given to the computer in the form of information, data etc. For example, if we want to make a mark table of students in a class, then for this roll number, name, class, subject, marks etc. of those students will be required. This information is called raw data.
  • A set of instructions written in a specific computer language is called a program. Computers are controlled by these programs. Here also we take the example of a number table. A program has to be made to extract the marks sheet also. Suppose in this program roll number is to be filled under first instruction, then name, then class and then subject four marks are to be filled under next instructions. After that, the program will give the total marks, percentage, category, priority number etc. information without any human labor in the blink of an eye.
  • Meaningful information is the result obtained through computer programs that make sense and are useful. Meaningful information is the organized form of unstructured, isolated, raw data. For example, when the sum, percentage, rank, priority number, etc. of the scores are extracted as a result in a table, then these are called meaningful information.

Types of Computer

       Different types of computers have been invented for different purposes. Therefore, computers are generally classified on the basis of their application, size and purpose.

Classification Based on Application

       Computers are classified into the following three types on the basis of application

Analog Computer

       These computers work directly on physically available data, instead of working on numbers. Physical data are in the form of physical quantities like temperature, pressure, length, flow of electricity or other fluids etc. These computers are used where continuous measurement of these physical quantities is required. For example, analog signals are continuous in the fields of engineering, industries and science. Analog computer is a special purpose machine.

Analog Computer

       Speedometer, clock, electric meter, thermometer, voltage meter etc. are some other examples of analog computers.

Digital Computer

       These computers work on numbers. They work on the same data which are in the form of binary digits. In a digital computer, all the data and instructions are inputted simultaneously and the computer calculates according to the instructions and provides the result as output. Along with calculations, digital computers also perform logical operations. These computers being multipurpose are used in various tasks. Whenever there is a discussion about computers, we mean these computers only. The signals of a digital computer are discontinuous.

Digital Computer

Hybrid Computer

       These computers include the properties of both analog and digital computers. Therefore, while working on the signals of temperature, speed, flow etc., these computers can also do the work of calculating and performing logical operations. Their output is in the form of ako or any unit of measurement. Hybrid computers are being widely used in the field of medicine where it takes the patient’s temperature, pulse, blood pressure etc. as analog signals and then converts them into digital signals and displays the results in the form of ACO.

Classification Based on Size

       Current computers are often classified into four types on the basis of their size is as follows:


       They are small in size and low in cost. Computers installed in homes, offices, schools etc. are mostly micro computers. They have only one CPU. The storage capacity (memory) and working speed of these computers are relatively less. Only one person can work on these at a time. Hence they are called Personal Computer or P.C. It is also said PCs are also of many types-

(a) Desktop computers : Desk computers, which are worked by keeping them on the table, they are slightly bigger in size. It consists of CPU, monitor, keyboard, mouse etc.

Desktop Computer

(b) Laptop Computer: These are similar to briefcases. This are small in size. They can be easily carried from one place to another. A person can work by keeping it in his lap. It includes CPU monitor, keyboard, mouse all in one. It uses battery for power.

Laptop Computer

(c) Palmtop Computer : These are smaller in size than laptop computers. Which is run by keeping it on the palm. They are small in size and light in weight. Battery is used for power in this. Its working capacity is less than laptop.

PomTop Computer

(d) Note Book Computer: Note book computers are similar to laptop computers. Which is run by keeping it in the lap. These computers can be easily taken from one place to another. It consists of CPU, keyboard and mouse together. Their working capacity is less than that of a laptop.

Notebook Computer

(e) Tablet Computer : These are slightly bigger than mobiles and they are operated by fingers.

Tablet Computer

Mini Computer

       These are medium sized general purpose computers. They are more functional, powerful and cost more than microcomputers. Their storage capacity (memory) and working speed are relatively high. In these, more than one C.P.U. There are More than one person can work on these at a time. These are often used in big offices, banks etc.

Mini Computer

Mainframe Computer

       They are very large in size. Their storage capacity (memory) and working speed are very high. Many people can work on these computers at a time. These are more expensive. These are often used in railway reservation, insurance companies, research institutes and large commercial organizations. IBM 4300, IBM 4381, VAX 8842 etc. are some examples of mainframe computers.

Menframe Computer

Super Computer

       These are the largest computers in size. They have maximum storage capacity (memory) and working speed. More complex and higher degree of accuracy calculations are possible only with supercomputers. These computers are the most expensive. Their cost is in billions of rupees. Many people can work on these also simultaneously. They are mainly used in scientific research organizations, weather forecasting, space research laboratories, defense organizations, control of nuclear plants, genetic engineering, etc. Param (PARAM), CRAY, NEC, CDC etc. are examples of super computers.

Super Computer

PARAM – Supercomputer has been developed by C-DAC (Centre for Development of Advanced Computing) located in Pune in India. This is completely Indian computer. Its construction is a huge scientific achievement for India. More than one excellent form of PARAM PARAM 10000, PARAM Anant and PARAM Padam have also been developed. These supercomputers are being used not only in India but also abroad and they are becoming more popular day by day. The working capacity of these computers is unique.

Param Super Computer

       The story of PARAM’s development is also interesting. In the 1980s, when the United Nations • America banned the supply of information and computer hardware to India in specific areas of technology and the supercomputer named Cray X-MP, this restriction proved to be a boon for India. Computer scientists in India took this restriction as a challenge and the result was the development of PARAM supercomputer with unique properties and unique capabilities.

       PARAM is a multipurpose supercomputer. It is mainly being used in a wide range of fields such as weather forecasting, medicine, designing, making molecular models, remote sensing, treating diseases, etc. PARAM has made a significant contribution in solving various problems faced in space and nuclear programmes. It also contributes to the detection of oil and gas reserves present in different parts of the country. The development of PARAM is a shining example of the ability and dedication of Indian scientists and engineers.

Uses of Computer

       The use of computer is very wide. Today the utility of computer in life has become so much that today’s era is called computer era.

       With the invention of computer, many calculations which were not in the control of humans, have now become easy. In fact, the computer was invented for the purpose of doing calculations automatically and accurately. The use of computers is indispensable in areas where there is a great need for timeliness and precision. Weather forecasting, space research related processes, operation of nuclear plants, etc. are some of the specific areas whose development was not possible without computers. Man’s step on the moon has been possible only because of the precise and fast speed calculation of the computer.

       The use of computer has brought revolutionary changes in the riding field. Today, a person sitting in any corner of the world can be contacted by just pressing a few buttons and that too at a very low cost. Internet is a very powerful medium for information transmission and information receipt. It is also an immense storehouse of information and knowledge from where any information and knowledge can be obtained in a jiffy. As soon as the results of the examination are declared, the examinees get information about their results and achievements through the internet.

       Anyone’s telephone number can be found from the telephone directory available on the Internet. Train, bus, airplane timetable and their actual running status can be known. Information about the current status of a normal passenger train of Indian Railways is available on the Internet. All the major newspapers of the world are available on the Internet. With internet you can read any regional supplement of Rajasthan newspaper sitting in any corner of the world. You can get train reservation done, telephone bill, bank balance etc. information sitting at home. There is hardly any information or information that is not available on the internet. Internet serves as a very good reference source for researchers and writers. Messages can be sent from one computer to another through e-mail available on the Internet. It costs very little to send messages through e-mail and time is also saved. The moment the message is sent, it reaches the computer located in any corner of the world the very second. Messages can be exchanged instantly through another feature called Chatting. Contact can also be established from any phone using another facility available on the Internet called Net ‘Telephony’. In net telephony, it is not necessary for the person in front to have a computer. Net telephony costs very little to call abroad. Now net telephony has become legal in India also. In video conferencing, one can even see each other while talking on the telephone.

       The use of computers has increased a lot in the business world as well. From the maintenance of simple accounts or accounts to the management of national and international stock market, today computers are being used. With the combination of computer and internet, a new business system has come into vogue which is called E-Commerce. Buying and selling of goods and services through internet is called e-commerce. It has provided global markets for goods and services to producers and sellers and has enabled the exchange of business information.

       There has been a huge reduction in time and cost. Today housewives are buying things for their domestic use sitting at home, booking of hotels and reservation of travel tickets are being done sitting at home.

       E-banking is a part of e-commerce. Through internet, account holders can check their bank account balance, transfer money from one account to another. You can pay telephone, electricity, water bills or do any transaction. Under e-banking itself, another facility is being made available by the banks to their customers – that is A.I. T.M. (A.T.M.). ATM. The full name of Automatic Teller Machine is Automatic Teller Machine. The depositor can withdraw money through ATM at any time and at any place. That’s why atm. In popular sense it is also called Any Time Money.

Computer : ATM Machine

       Computer has taken the place of typewriter in the offices, apart from this, the computer also does the work of maintenance of accounts, establishment details, salary details etc. of all the work done in the offices. Computer has given rise to the concept of “Paperless Office”. Support of e-governance is being taken for administrative control. Complete details of books in the library, complete record of library members, giving and returning of books, etc. can be easily maintained by computer. Now computers are also used in publication and printing works. These tasks come under Desktop Publishing (DTP). traditional printing is very used to be difficult and laborious, but now it has become very easy with the use of computers.

       In the field of medicine, computers are being used a lot in the diagnosis of diseases, their treatment, surgery, intensive monitoring of patients etc. Ultrasound, CT Scan (CT Scan / Computerized Tomography), M.R.I. (M.R.I.) etc. are some of the tests that are used to detect various diseases and disorders. In these tests, the diagnosis of diseases is done more easily through computer generated images.

Ultra Sound and CT Scan

       The pacemaker is a small computer device used to control the pacemaker in patients with irregular heartbeat. In the field of Genetic Engineering where different D.N. The structures of are studied. Use of computer is inevitable. Many complicated criminal cases are solved by DNA fingerprinting. With the combination of biomedical science and computer, a new branch of science, Bioinformatics, has come into existence.

       Computers are being used very effectively in the field of education. The use of computers in the classroom (Claus room) has increased in the form of science projects, preparing reports, collecting information and as interactive learning pools. Computer is being used as a supplement to the teacher. Under Computer Based Teaching-CET, many such software are available, which give concise information on various subjects, CB with multimedia animation video. T. Software is very useful in explaining any subject effectively. Nowadays online journaling training through internet has become familiar to students sitting in their homes and talking to their teachers (Virtual Class Room).

Computer : Robote

       Computer has also shown its wonders in the field of engineering. Which material would be better used in the construction of a building, object, component etc. and whether they would be able to bear the necessary stress and heat etc., etc. can be determined with increased ease from Computer Aided Engineering (CAE). CAE in the construction of large buildings, bridges, airplanes etc. Its use is essential from a security point of view. Through computer aided designing (CAD), internal and external detailed and three-dimensional form of any object can be prepared and seen on the screen. By looking at the map of a house built on paper, it is generally not known what will be the actual form of that house and how it will look when it is completed. But through “CAD” all this can be seen even before the house is built. Such situations where it can be dangerous for humans to work, here the use of robots has started. Robot is a computer operated mechanical human.

       Computer is also being used a lot in the field of entertainment. Today many such computer games are available which not only entertain but also enhance knowledge and also develop the intellectual and logical abilities of children. Computer games are so popular that they attract not only young children but also older people. In films, with the help of computer, such scenes with special effects are prepared, which

       In reality there is no existence. You must have seen movies like Jurassic Park, Gotzilla, Anaconda, Little Stuart etc. Computers have been used to create special effects in all these films. With the help of computer, colored versions of old famous Indian films ‘Mughal-e-Azam’ and ‘Naya Daur’ which were black and white have been prepared.

Computer : Film Dinasore

       Computer has also made a place in the broadcasting of channels. The channels which broadcast with the help of computer are called digital channels. Their broadcast is better than the normal channel.

       Computers are also being used to create new tunes of music. A computer can generate the sound of many musical instruments. Creating music by computer is called Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI).

       Today the computer has also entered our homes where it is used for education, entertainment, letter writing, e-mail. Batting, getting various information from internet etc. is used in various works.

       In this way, if we see, we will find that no one in our life remains untouched by the computer. Today it is not only for someone special but for every person has become useful.

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