Learn about Software & Hardware, Computer Languages and Operating System

Software & Hardware, Computer Languages and Operating System

Computer : Software & Hardware, Computer Languages and Operating System

Software & Hardware

     The work of computer is operated in two parts.

  1. Hardware
  2. Software

     Hardware and software together form a complete system . All the equipment, objects, programs, etc. come under either hardware or software. Therefore it is necessary to have knowledge of both.


     All those physical and tangible parts of the computer system that we can see and touch. called hardware. CPU Keyboard, mouse, printer, speaker, etc. are examples of hardware. We can see all these parts as well as touch them.


     To make the computer work, we have to tell the computer that What is he supposed to do? For this work, we have to give instructions to the computer. These instructions are called D software. The set of these instructions is also called a program.

     Software is what makes the hardware functional. Any hardware works only when it gets instructions from its related software. Software is in electronic form which cannot be seen or happened.

Types of Software

     Software is used to conduct the activities between the computer and the user and they are used to computerize any work. is also done. These can be divided into two parts

  • System Software
  • Application Software
System Software

     Computer operating software which is necessary for the execution of any program on the computer. are called system software. These make the computer more effective and useful. System software is the set of programs that control the physical parts and software of the computer. Application software cannot be used on a computer in the absence of system software. System software is prepared by computer experts. It is an essential part of computer system. It controls the activities between the computer user and computer hardware and it also executes the application software, hence it is also called the basis of application software.

Functions of system software:-

  • System software executes all other software.
  • It establishes a connection between the user and the computer hardware.
  • It is used for making various snakes.
  • Like a computer, memory controls the input-output devices.

System software includes the following programs

  • Operating System
  • Utility Program
  • Programming Languages
  • Language Translator
Application Software

     Application software is a set of programs designed to perform specific and defined tasks. Depending on the work, they can be made in any language. Doctors, engineers, designers, advocates, etc. require different types of programs for their different needs. These professionals can perform their tasks very efficiently with the use of application software. Today they are being used a lot in banking, insurance, factory hospital, engineering etc. Various application software are also used by education boards and universities for preparation of examination results in offices for preparation of salary bills. These programs provide the computer with the ability to perform specific tasks, such as word processing, engineering control, payroll, railway reservation, etc. All these software come under this category.

Computer Languages

     Language means the medium of explaining your words to others in the right way, the language which is used to make the computer work is called user language or computer language. The language that the computer machine understands is called binary or machine language. Therefore, if any work is to be done by the computer, then information has to be given in machine language. The software that is needed to convert user language into machine language is called translator, it is also capable of converting machine language into user language. works. Computer languages ​​are mainly divided into three parts-

  • Machine Language or Low Level Language (LLL)
  • Assembly Language or Middle Level Language-MLL)
  • High Level Language (HLL)

Low level or machine language

     Machine language is the language of the computer that the computer understands. It is also called binary (0.1) language. There is direct contact with the machine through this language, hence it is also called machine language. It is difficult to work in this language because the process of repeatedly explaining the computer in 0.1 is complicated.

     Instructions given in machine language work very fast, because any translator in it Software is not required. The result of the given instruction also comes in machine language. Example – If we type ‘A’ from the keyboard, the computer converts it into machine language.

     Then it gets a figure which is ‘A’. The computer does this process faster.

Assembly language

     Assembly language was developed to overcome the shortcomings of machine language. Instead of binary language, sign language mnemonic code was used, which was easy to remember. Assembler is used to convert this code into machine language. Working in this language is easier than in machine language. Their program was first converted into machine language due to which its speed is less than machine language.

     To write a program in assembler language, the machine must have knowledge of the hardware in which the two programs run. It is machine based language and requires other software – HUT, ADD, CLA. SUB etc.

High level languages

     High level languages ​​were developed to overcome the shortcomings of assembly language. In this instructions are given in English language instead of quotes. A high-level language uses the same words as in the English language. Which made it easy to understand and write the program. It is not a machine-based language, by which compilers and interpreters are used to convert the program into machine language. These days this language is commonly used.

     High-level language mainly includes (C++, Java and generally all programming languages). High-level language generally uses language like English, so it is easy to write and use. It does not require any special hardware, so it can be used on all types of computers.

Language Translator

     These are programs that accept instructions in one language and produce equivalent instructions in another language. Compiler, Interpreter, Assembler are some examples of language processor.


     It is a system software that is used to convert high level programming language into machine language. The compiler compiles the entire program at once and displays the various errors along with their line numbers. The program need not be in memory at the time of program execution by the compiler.


     Those language processors which convert high level programming language line by line into machine language are called interpreters. It displays immediately if there is any line error. It is necessary for the program to be in memory at the time of program execution by the interpreter.


     Converts a program written in assembly language into machine language. It is a system software. Assembler converts to machine language one line at a time.

Operating System

     A group of programs that conduct all the functions of the computer. is called the operating system. It is also a connecting link between the computer and the user. As soon as the user turns on the computer, the operating system gets stored in the computer’s memory and then runs the computer’s functions. MS DOS, Windows, Linux etc. are some of the popular operating systems.

Operating System Functions

  • Memory Management: Any program and its related data has to be kept somewhere in the memory and from where to get it. It is determined by the operating system itself.
  • File Management Under this, the work of bringing back the file by its name is done.
  • Input Output Management Under this, the management of devices used to give data to the computer or to take data from the computer know how to do.
  • User Interface This operating system deals with the user, which makes the user’s work easier.
  • Utilities – These programs get the user away from the complexities of the tasks.

Operating System Requirement

     The operating system acts as a medium between us and the computer. Apart from this, it also acts as a bridge between Hardwares and Softwares. does. Without the operating system, the computer itself has no existence. If there is no operating system, then the computer will never be able to establish a connection between its hardware such as keyboard (Keyboard), Monitor (Monitor), CPU (CPU) etc. The operating system saves any computer user from this trouble. It is that he should have knowledge of all the parts of the computer.

Type of operating system

Single User Operating System

     Those operating systems that keep the management of one user are called single user operating systems such as DOS, Windows.

Multi User Operating System

     Those operating systems which have more than one users are called multi user operating systems like Linux.

Utility Programs

     These programs provide information about various parts of the computer to carry out maintenance and repair work. Example – Disk Recovery Program, Data Backup Program etc.

     These programs can make the computer’s memory dynamic or capable of receiving more data by running on the computer from time to time. Through these software, necessary data can be kept as backup. These software provide some kind of facility on the computer, hence they are called utility software. These utility software are generally used for the following tasks-

  • Scan disk to keep the hard disk correct. Disk Defragmenter to keep the hard disk moving.
  • Restore program for backing up files and restoring the backup to the computer.
  • Compressing program to store more data on a disk.
  • Anti virus programs etc. to check and remove viruses on the computer.

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